Sworn and legalised translations

Sworn translations, legalisation, consularisation and apostillation are necessary operations to ensure the validity of a translation in the target country, for example if a company needs to participate in a tender process in a foreign country or if one of its foreign employees has to legalise their documents in order to work in a foreign branch of the company.

Landoor is able to offer these supplementary services with fast turnaround times and the utmost professionalism in all languages and for all countries in the world, saving time, money and resources for clients who already use Landoor for the translation of their legal and financial documents in their product sector.

Depending on the country and jurisdiction, the documents must include the certification of a notary or court, or of a consulate or embassy. Here are a few guidelines to help clear up any doubts:

  • A sworn translation is a translation whose conformity with the source text has been legally validated (in practice, the translated document maintains the same legal value as the original). It is a notarial act issued by the Registry of the Court, which in this way becomes its certifying body. The sworn translator makes a specific declaration in which they swear that their translation is faithful and corresponds in full with the original. Sworn translations cannot be carried out from one foreign language to another: one of the languages involved must be that of the country in which the document is sworn. The final document consists of a bundle that includes the original document, the translation and the oath of the translator. Sworn translations should not be confused with certified translations which are personally certified by the translator (listed on the register of translators – category Court-Appointed Experts) who stamps and signs the translation and attaches a declaration in which they confirm that their translation conforms to the original.
  • Legalisation, or legalised translation, is the step that follows sworn translations. Legalised translations are requested when the translated documents must be presented to authorities in other countries (i.e. have legal value in that country). In practice, legalisation is the official certification of the legal quality of the public officer that signed the document and the authenticity of their signature. Legalisation is carried out by the Public Prosecutor’s Office or by the Court Prefect’s Office.
  • Consularisation (or the application of the consular visa) is the legalisation of a legal document at a consulate or embassy. This requires that the document be deposited at the consulate or embassy for checking and the application of a consular stamp that ratifies its legalisation.
  • For the countries that signed the 1961 Apostille Convention consularisation can be replaced by apostillation, i.e. the application of a note (apostille) by the authorities of the state of origin on the original version of a certificate. This special stamp certifies the authenticity of the document and the legal quality of the issuing authority. With apostillation a sworn translation in Italian is therefore sufficient, with no need for legalisation at the Italian embassy, and the legalised document complete with apostille is recognised in all States that signed the Convention. The nations that ratified the Brussels Convention of 1987 (Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Latvia and Italy), the Budapest Convention of 1977 (Hungary and Italy) and the Rome Convention of 1969 (Germany and Italy) are exempt from the apostillation procedure as they accept the authentication by a public officer of the partner country without the need for any further checks.

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